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Book Chapter 2 - The Visible Computer

6. Touring Linux

There's an operating system out there that you may not be aware of, known as Linux. Linux is an operating system that's been around for over 20 years now, and it's really only in the last few years that it's come into its own. The problem with Linux is that, first of all, this is not Windows. This is not MacOS. It's its own thing. You don't see Linux on desktops very often; you don't see Linux on laptop computers very often. But where you do see Linux is in For example, this Netgear router actually runs on this Linux operating system. Here I have a little microcomputer called a Raspberry Pi. It runs on Linux. Even my Android phone uses a variation of Linux designed by Google. So Linux is absolutely everywhere. And Linux has some big benefits. Number one here is the biggest: Linux is absolutely free. So you just grab a copy, and you do whatever you want. Now there's some complexity here. Number one, when we say the word "Linux," what we're talking about is just the kernel of the operating system. Along with the kernel of the operating system are desktop interfaces and device drivers for network cards, controllers for hard drives, and all this stuff. Linux is just the controller. Along with Linux, there are hundreds of thousands of different programmes that are under the GNU license. Ganu always stands for Gannon, not Unix. But here's the official name for what Ganu stands for. The Ganu licence basically means I, as a programmer, want to write a programme that allows me to allow the Linux kernel to talk to a hard drive. So I'd make one up. Yes, there are people who do this all over the world. They do it for free, and thank goodness they do. Or I might be a programmer who decides to write up a new desktop interface. See, that's the other cool thing about Linux. With Windows. You have a Windows desktop. With macOS. Do you have a Mac OS desktop? But with Linux, you can pick almost any desktop you want. So this creates a problem. The problem is that anybody who wants to, as long as they have to take the Linux kernel, can then put this desktop on here and this type of hard drive controller and this thing to install the program. And this is their own store. So you can download their programs, and you could put all this together in a big bundle. And we call that a Linux distribution, or a "Linux distro." There are thousands—I mean, thousands—of Linux distributions that are out there today. And what we're going to do in this episode is talk about a very specific and extremely popular one called Ubuntu. Ubuntu has been around for a while and is one of the best versions of Linux. If you want to replace Windows, this is the one that you should turn to. Now before we dive into that too much, I want to show you a couple of other distributions. People often will pick the distro of Linuxthey like often because they just like theinterface or they have a specific function. Like, for example, if you get a Raspberry Pi, it has a very specific distribution called Raspion that is designed just for this. Other folks, like Netgear, will pick and choose, and they'll develop their own distro just for their specific devices. So let's take a couple peeks at some other distros, mainly because there are some really cool interfaces out there. So the first thing I'd like to start off with is a very popular fellow called Fedora. So this is the default Fedora interface. Fedora has been around. In fact, arguably, Fedora has been around longer than just about anybody else. When we take a look at Fedora, we are looking at an interface known as KDE. KDE is very, very popular, and a lot of people like it. The only real alternative to KDE is Nome. Sonoma is used on this. Ubuntu. Let's take a look at another Linux system that's basically configured almost the exact same way, just with a different desktop. Here is Ubuntu: So we see it's got a nice little desktop-kind of look, and at first peak you mightgo Well, Mike, this looks almost identical. You can almost change the interface to do anything you want. So people get very picky about which one they want. For example, if I write a Solitaire game, I'm probably going to have to write it for either KDE or Nome. So there's a lot of competition between those two interfaces. But there's one more I want to show becausea lot of people like Windows quite a bit. So there's another very popular interface called Cinnamon. Let me show you that. Take a look at this interface. Does that look kind of familiar? It looks like we've got a little start button; we've got start menus here. We've got the taskbar at the bottom. Kind of makes you think about Windows a little bit, doesn't it? So this is called Linux. Mint is the name of the distribution, and the desktop interface we're seeing here is called Cinnamon. This is really designed because a lot of people wanted the look and feel of Windows and felt that they could bring that into a Linux environment. The bottom line is that you're going to pick your own distribution for what you want to do. Now keep in mind that in this particular situation we're talking about a desktop. So what I want to do right now is let's go back into Ubuntu and just talk about some of the parts of a standard desktop interface that you'll see pretty much on any Linux system, but in this case, Ubuntu. So as we take a look at Ubuntu here, probably the first place you're going to notice is that we've got our top bar up here, so there's no taskbar like we have in a Windows environment. But we can do a lot of important things, for example. Networking can be handled up here if we need to sign out or shut the system down. We can handle that over here in what we call the "Dash," which is about as close to a taskbar as you're going to get in a Linux environment, so I like the name "Dash." It's kind of like its dashboard. But whatever, anyway. That's about as close as you're going to get to the Windows taskbar within a Linux environment, so the next thing I want to show you is activities, so if I click on this Activities tab, you'll see that I can bring up multiple desktops. in essence, so here. I don't know. I pull up a software function; maybe there's some software I can click on activities here, and I can actually jump back and forth between different desktops, which is awfully handy now. The last thing I want to show you on the graphical interface is right here, so these are all the applications that are installed on this particular system, so anything that's installed is going to show up here in particular. One thing I want to show you, and this is the last thing I want to show you here, is Terminal in a Linux environment. Virtually everything that's critical is done from what we call a command prompt, so I have entire episodes that talk about a command prompt, but since we're in Linux, I'd like to at least mention and by the way. When I say command prompt, Terminal or shell I use those terms interchangeably. To me, they mean the same thing that we're looking at right here on the screen, so I can type in strange commands and do all kinds of interesting stuff Linux is an incredibly powerful tool I use Linux to power all kinds of strange things in my house, for example. I've got a garage door opener that's running on one of these raspberries that uses Linux so that I can open my garage door from my phone Linux does not have a lot of penetration on the desktop simply because Windows and macOS are so incredibly popular, but they are out there. They're pretty cool, and the best of all They're absolutely free.

Book Chapter 3 – CPUs

1. 32-Bit vs. 64-Bit Processing

You know, it's always fun to look at the bottom of a CPU. It's got so many little wires or little pad contacts. On modern CPUs, there could be over 20 of these little connectors. And you always wonder, why does it need so many connectors? Based on other episodes, we've learned stuff like there is an external database, which is going to be in our examples, and we only used eight wires. And I'm sure one of these is probably a clockwire, and a few of these are probably voltage. Some of these are ground. But why so many wires? Well, I'm going to add to the list here a little bit and talk about something very important. We know that the CPU has to grab lines of code from RAM. The question is, how does it do it? It's actually really fascinating. Let me show you. So here's my CPU. Now the CPU has an external database. In this case, I'm just going to say it's an eight-bit external database. They're a lot bigger today, but this will get us started. The external database now extends throughout our computer rather than just leaving the CPU. In fact, that's the job of a motherboard. Its job is to allow lots of different peripherals, hard drives, and things like RAM to also connect to the CPU. So, let us take a moment to look at some Ram. Now, in the real world, Ram looks like a stick like this. However, electronically, Ram looks very different. RAM looks like a one-column spreadsheet. In each column of this spreadsheet, you can store eight binary values or a bit. So the number of different rows we havein here is going to depend on somethingwhich I'm about to explain to you. So the challenge we have here is that I've got the CPU overlay here and I've got all of these lines of code. How can I get individual lines of code onto the CPU so that it can run it and do whatever it needs to do? Well, to do that, we're going to add another chip. This chip is known as the memory controller chip. Memory controller chips used to be a separate chip. However, today, they're pretty much all built into the CPU itself. But for right now, let's just go ahead and keep him as a separate chip, and we're going to give him eight wires to connect to the external database as well. All right. Now that we've got this, the memory controller chip inessence kind of has a claw built into it. And this claw can grab any single byte of memory and put it on the external database. And then it gets sent to the CPU, and then the CPU can execute it. Sounds great, right? So, how does the CPU tell the memory controller chip which of these rows, which byte of RAM, needs to be dropped onto the external database so that it can be executed? Well, the secret is something called an address bus. An address bus is a direct connection between the CPU and the memory controller chip that isn't used to move data. It's simply used by the CPU to tell the MCC which byte of memory it needs. Right? Now, if we want to understand how an address works, we need to think in terms of binary. So let's pretend like I have one wire running from the CPU to the memory controller chip. In this new address bus thing I just mentioned, that wire can be in one of two states. It can be either off or on. Right? So what we can say is that with a one-bit address bus, we could address up to two different bites of RAM. We could have two separate commands, and if it was off, it would grab the top one, and if it was on, we'd grab the second one. So that wouldn't be very useful if we only had two bites of RAM and a computer. So we probably need a few more wires. Right? Well, let's add a few more and watch what happens. Okay, in this particular example, what I'm going to do is I'm going to run 16 wires from the CPU to the memory controller chip. These 16 wires are not used to move data. They're just for the CPU to talk to the memory controller chip to tell it which row of memory it wants to access at any given moment. So if it's all turned off, that's 16 zeros. That's going to be the first bite of memory. And if they're all turned on, that's 161. That's going to be the last one. So what we have here is to the 16th power, or 65,536 bytes of RAM. Now, that may not sound like much, but back in the day of the 16-bit address bus, that was crazy. So, simply by putting different patterns of ones and zeros on the address bus, the CPU can order the memory controller chip to grab individual rows of RAM so that we can run the program. Now, 16 bits didn't last too terribly long. For a long time, we had 32-bit address buses, and today we have 64-bit address buses. So a 32-bit address bus can address around 4GB of RAM, and a 64-bit address bus is so huge here, just put it up there. If you have 32 wires on an address bus, that means you can address two to the 32nd power, or about 4GB of RAM. Now, 32-bit addressing worked great from the mid-'80s up until around the early two thousand s.Thirty-two bits was extremely popular. However, if you talk to people today about how much RAM they have in their computer, you're going to hear people say things like, "Well, I've got 8 GB of RAM or 16 GB of RAM with 64-bit processors, so we can address a lot more memory." If you put, say, 8GB of RAM in a system with a 32-bit CPU, it will only see 4GB. It will never use more than that. It doesn't have enough wires; it's just not going to happen. So the whole 32-bit versus 64-bit world is—well, it's not as big of a deal as it used to be because 64-bit has become so common. There are a couple of things I want to mention. First of all, number one, almost every 64-bit CPU on Earth can run 32-bit stuff. If needed, it would prefer 64, but it can run 32. So that's an important thing to keep in mind. When in doubt, you're probably going to have a 64-bit processor. In terms of desktop CPUs, I haven't seen a dedicated 32-bit processor in many years, but we do mention this on the exam, so I want to cover it. So one of the things I want to show you is if you're going to have a 32-bit or 64-bit processor, you're going to have to install the correct operating system to make that work. So I've got laid out here some installation media that I'd like you to take a look at, and it literally will show you whether it's a 64-bit or a 32-bit version of Windows. Let me show you what I mean. What I've got here is a list of different versions of Windows. I've got an old copy of Vista here. This is Windows 10. Windows 8 is shown below. What I want you to notice more than anything is that this is a 64-bit version of Windows. This is a 32-bit version of Windows. This is a 64-bit version of Windows. So for years, you had to be really careful. If you had a 64-bit processor, you made sure to get a 64-bit copy of Windows. If you had a 32-bit processor, you got a 32-bit copy of Windows. Modern installation media will literally query your system. And if it's a 64-bit processor, it will install 64 bit.If it's a 32-bit processor, it will install 32 bit.And you can actually, if you look very carefully there, see that it says 32-bit and 64 bit.So that's telling us that this particular installation media, which is just a thumb drive, by the way, if I plug this into a system to install Windows, if it sees I've got a 64-bit processor, boom, it'll just go ahead and install it. 64-bit gives us a lot of advantages. The biggest one is more memory, and that's really in and of itself enough for us to want to install it. 4GB of memory on a system today is pretty small, but it can still happen. So now the question is, okay, I don't know what I have on my computer. How can I tell? Every operating system will let you know what version of the operating system you have on it, whether 32-bit or 64 bit.If you take a look at the screen right here, here in Windows, if you take a look right here, it says system type, 64-bit operating system, and it's an X64-based processor. When we talk about processor types, when you see the term "X86," that means it's a 32-bit processor. When you see X 64, that means it's a 64-bit processor. So it's easy enough to be able to quickly recognise whether you have a 64-bit version of Windows or a 32-bit version of Windows. So now the big problem that comes into play are the actual applications. Because if you've got a 64-bit version of Windows, you probably want a 64-bit version of a particular application. So when we're dealing with applications, take a look at the screen right here. This is CPUZ, and you'll see that when I download it, it downloads both a 32-bit and a 64-bit version. And here are some other utilities. And you'll see they all have 32- and 64-bit versions. If you had a 32-bit operating system and you installed or at least tried to install a 64-bit application, you're not going to break anything. The installation is simply going to happen; this isn't going to happen, and it stops you. So there's no harm in trying. However, in the opposite direction, it will work. For example, if you have a 64-bit version of Windows, you can install 32-bit applications. So Windows is actually designed to handle this. If you take a look in Windows on the Cdrive right here, you'll see you have two folders. This folder is called Program Files. This is for 64-bit programs. This folder here is called Program Files x 86.Remember, X86 means 32-bit programmes will actually install 32-bit programs. If you install a 32-bit programme on a 64-bit system, that application cannot use more than 4GB of RAM. So for example, this happens all the time in Office 365. For example, here I've got Office 365 running. Okay, there's my account. But if you take a look right here, you'll see right up here that it installed a 32-bit version of Word. This one had me scratching my head a little bit. I was like, "All of these programmes should be able to install the 64-bit version if I've got a 64-bit processor." And the answer I actually had to look up came from Microsoft. And Microsoft said that we feel that the 32-bit version is better for compatibility. People have add-ons in their Excel spreadsheets and stuff like that. that for compatibility reasons. Microsoft by default installed a 32-bit version of Office, even though I have a 64-bit processor. In fact, to install 64-bit Office, I had to dig a little bit to actually find the 64-bit installation. So this is the big difference between 32-bit and 64-bit systems. If the world is all 64 bit, then why are we even talking about 32 bit? Mike, is this ancient? Taters—well, it's not. 32 bit is alive and well in a lot of systems, so there's absolutely nothing wrong with 32 bit. Just keep in mind that in today's world it's a little bit more specialized, and you're going to be seeing it more on individual systems than on the regular big desktops and laptops, and even mostly on the smartphones we use today.

Book Chapter 4 – RAM

1. Virtual Memory

There's an old adage that says you can't be too rich or too thin. Now, I may not totally agree with that, but I'll put a corollary to it, and I'm going to say you can't have too much RAM in a computer. Everything you do on your computer counts as an ounce on your RAM. Every active programme that's running needs RAM in order to have the workspace it needs to do what it needs to do. Now, if you run out of RAM, you can run into a big problem. Let me show you what I'm talking about using a beaker. I've got over here. Here's a graduated beaker. Now, this beaker is going to represent all of the memory, all the RAM, in my computer. So as you'll see, I've got it graduated from zero up to 16 GB because, well, that's how much memory I have in my PC. Now, when I boot that computer up, some of this is going to be used for the operating system itself. So in Windows, it's usually around two gigs. Now, as we begin to load more and more programs, they begin to take up more and more space in this beaker. So some programmes are fairly small, whereas other programmes can be extreme. This is some big graphics programme or something like that, taking up a lot of space. Now, what you're looking at here is that over time, as we begin to load more and more programs, we are suddenly in a position where we're about to use all of the memory. And if we use all the memory, you get one simple error called "out of memory." And when that happens, your computer says "We're not going to go any further." So we really want to avoid out-of-memory errors. Now, in order to do that, we've got a little trick we can do. And this trick is to use a small portion of our hard drive to make it look, bark, smell, taste, and think it's Ram. I know it's crazy, but it works. and we call this virtual memory. Now, every operating system has the virtual memory feature. And the thing I want to emphasise to you is that we don't want to use virtual memory. We want to have enough RAM in our computers. Virtual memory is that thing we use every now and then, and we're like, "Whoa, I'm using virtual memory." I've got a problem. I need to add more RAM. So virtual memory, although it's built into every operating system, is not something we want to use. It's something that just keeps us running until we can open the system up and snap some more sticks in there. So what I'm going to use is Windows to take a look, and we can actually look at our virtual memory. So let's go ahead and do that right now. So in Windows, I could go over into my system properties and go into advanced settings. UAC doesn't like me to do that over here in advanced, so I click right here on settings. This is Windows 10, by the way, and hit advance again. I was hit by three advances in a row. Anyway, you get the screen right here, and it says virtual memory. So right now it has about 64GB set aside as virtual memory. That seems big, but this is what Microsoft likes. So let's hit Change, and what you'll see up here is the important one. In fact, you're going to see this on the exam too, and that is automatically manage files, which is the actual part of the hard drive that thinks it's RAM and automatically manages paging file sizes for all drives in the Windows Ten world. We set that to automatic. If for some bizarre reason you wanted to manually configure this, you could. However, the days of manual configuration of these files are long over. So he's like, "Okay, let's just cancel all that, and we're just going to go ahead and leave him on automatic." What we have now is this paging file—this chunk of our hard drive that thinks it's RAM ready to go. It's not an easy thing to find, but it's actually on our computer. It's on every operating system, but in Windows, I can actually take a look at it, and we can take a little look at it. So I'm going to open up a command prompt. If you're not familiar with command prompts, we've got lots of episodes in this series that cover them. And where I'm going to go is to what we actually call the root directory of the C drive, and I'm going to use a special command called Dir. And with this Dir command, I'm going to put this little thing on the end that says, "Show me everything that has the attribute of hidden." So I want to see anything that we couldn't normally see. And if you take a look right here, do you see this guy where it says "Swap file systems"? And this is a pretty big file right now, but it's nowhere near as big as we saw in the settings. It's a lot smaller than that. The reason is that Microsoft is not going to take 64 GB of your hard drive and set it aside for your swap file. It starts very small. In this case, it's about a quarter of a gigabyte, but it can go ahead and grow up to that large if necessary. You don't want to use this. The alternative to not having a swap file is that your system is going to hopefully give you a scary error screen and not work. It could also even freeze up your computer. The trick is this: if you start using virtual memory (and by the way, be careful with the terminology here), you'll see people going, "Oh, I'm using the swap file." What it means is that they're using virtual memory. Whenever you run into these types of scenarios, it's pretty painfully obvious. Number one, your computer slows way down because now your CPU, instead of writing to RAM, is trying to write to a spot on the hard drive. And all of a sudden, if you've got a desktop system or a lot of laptops that have a little light that shows you that your hard drive is active, that thing starts going nuts. That's a clue that you're using virtual memory. The way you fix this is to simply add more RAM. Trust me, it's a lot easier than it used to be in the old days, where we would try to configure these things and play with them. Today, you have this virtual memory, you start to slow down a lot, and the fix is simple. Just add some RAM.

Book Chapter 7 - Power Supply

1. Power Protection

There is nothing that makes me more crazy insane to watch somebody go to a computer store, buy some new high-end motherboard, some beautiful new CPU, a fancy cooling system, really high-end RAM, a beautiful case, a huge monitor, flashy lights, a keyboard, and a mouse. And they've spent a bazillion dollars, and now it's sticker shock time. And then the last thing everybody buys is power protection. And that's the one place where everybody goes really cheap. So they end up spending, I don't know, let's take it over the top. They spend thousands of dollars on a big, high-end system, and then they suddenly decide to be cheap and buy a piece of junk power protection. So in this episode, we're going to talk about the type of power protection you need for your systems. But before we get into power protection, let's talk about what the problems are with power. And that comes from what we call spikes and sags. If you look at the power over time, that's coming from the power company. In a perfect world, what it generates is this beautiful sine wave. So 60 times a second, it goes from one point, makes a peak, makes a valley, and then comes back to the zero point. So that is 1 Hz, or 60 times a second here in the States, and that's what takes place. In reality, electricity is a tricky thing to get in good working order from a power company. So one of the things that will often take place is that it won't go all the way up to 120 volts in one direction. Either way, they'll start doing stuff like this. In this case, you're never getting 120 volts. At best, you might be getting 60 volts or something like that. It's not zero. You are getting electricity, but from the power company. A transformer goes out or something takes place, and suddenly you are getting what we call a SAG. Sometimes you'll hear the term "brownout." That means you're not getting enough voltage. This can stop your computer from running and cause reboots. Far more dangerous, however, is this. There are situations where instead of getting 120 volts here in the States, you might suddenly get 300 volts in the States. And then it'll come back down, act normal for a minute, and then boom, another one. These are called spikes. A spike is when you're suddenly provided with far more voltage than what you're expecting. Spikes are dangerous because they can literally destroy your computer. Spikes are also known as surges. So a spike and a surge are the same thing. A SAG and a brownout are the same thing. Okay? So sags and brownouts are not happy things. It might make our computer reboot. A spike or a surge can destroy your system. So at the very least, we're always going to try to find some device that's going to be a surge suppressor or a surge protector. They go by a lot of different names. Their job is to catch those large voltage spikes and eat them in themselves; they do not carry them further into your system. There are lots of them out here. I've got an example right here. Now, this surge suppressor is pretty typical. There are a few things I want to mention, though, when we talk about surge suppressors. First of all, I always like to have one with, well, if I can get it, an on/off switch because it's actually on. And secondly, a trip alert. Or it can be one simple button that does both. All of a sudden, it's on, and it goes off all of a sudden. The reason I like that is because, yes, it's inconvenient to have my computer suddenly turn off. However, certain power companies are notorious for bad electricity. I'm not going to name any names, Houston, but there are certain cities here in the US. That's just a little bit notorious for not giving us that beautiful sign of wage voltage that we like. And I want to know that there is a problem like that. Yes, it's fantastic that it absorbs the spikes and surges. But I also want to know what's happening. So that's where I'm willing to let the thing kick off so that I can notice that it's taking place. So while we're talking about surge suppressors, they don't stop in terms of what you can plug into them. You can get surge suppressors that will protect your Ethernet cabling. Surge suppressors that protect landlines for telephones are available if you are still using it. Yeah, I still have one. Why not? But even for things like USB, a lot of us love to charge our USB devices. We use those little AC adapters. So it's convenient if I have something I can just plug my USB into. Why not have something I can plug my USB into and at the same time prevent those surges from destroying my beautiful thumb drives or any other USB device I might choose to be charging at any given moment? So they're great. Don't worry about Ul ratings or any official government bodies' ratings. They used to be pretty common with surge suppressors, but today they're also good. That's pretty much what they'll do: a big company will go out to some independent laboratory that's not a government agency and hand you a piece of paper that doesn't say anything good about it anymore. The only downside to cheap surge suppressors is that a cheap one will be a good surge suppressor one time, and then it turns into a power strip. So again, that's why I like to know when things are tripping. Also, if I'm paying less than well here in the United States. About $25 to $30 for a surge suppressor, I'm probablygetting one that will only work well one time. Now, if you really want to do things right, what you want to go to is a BC like this. What you're looking at here is an uninterruptible power supply, or UPS. Ups protect not only from spikes and surges; they also help protect you from sags and brownouts. Now think about this for a minute. How would it do that? In order to do that, it would have to make electricity. If things don't give you enough, somebody's going to have to pour some electricity in. And that's because inside every one of these guys is some kind of battery. While traditionally there were motorcycle batteries, the industry today makes their own special batteries for UPS, and these batteries pick up whatever your power company doesn't provide. So their batteries have a limited amount of time to do things depending on how much you draw from them. So when we buy these different types of UPS, what we're going to do is, first of all, not go to test you on how long the UPS lasts, because no one can answer that question because we don't know how much your system's pulling. But there are a few things that we can talk about in general. One of the big things is, if you take a look at the top of this system right here, you're going to see that on one side of it it says battery backup surge protection. This is the only plug on this system that actually provides protection against sags and brownouts over here. This is just a surge protector. So number one, you want to make sure you know where you're plugging them in. Many UPS makers provide a software interface between your UPS and your system that allows you to monitor it. So here's a screenshot of an example of this, so you can see it can tell you how many minutes of reserve power are in the battery right now. and that can often be a very convenient tool. to give you an idea of how well your UPS is working. All of these companies—I've got the APC brand here in front of you—I like APC quite a bit. When I'm going to buy myself a Ups, I'm going togo onto the APS website and it's going to talk abouthow much time and it's usually measured in minutes. This is not ours. The idea is that you lose power and then you suddenly have 15 minutes, 20 minutes on a really nice day, maybe 30 minutes to power down the system. So you don't look at these things as well. We've lost power because of a hurricane, so I'm just going to keep running. No, it gives you enough time to shut the machine down in a safe way if you want to have something that's going to survive when you've lost power for hours. Now you're talking about backup generator systems or something like that, which will provide power. So don't confuse them. In my opinion, about the only thing that I'm going to use a simple surge protector for anymore is going to be really inexpensive stuff. For example, I've got some flatbed scanners that cost me $80 each and a couple of cheap printers. For those, I might put on a surge protector. Almost any other system that I use today, I have an UPS for. I'm talking about in my house; I'm talking about in the office; I'm talking about in the server room. UPS are powerful, dependable, and efficient in today's world. And why bother protecting just from surges and spikes when you can protect from sags and brownouts? Is it the same with the San box?

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